A formerly enslaved South Carolina man, Union Army officer, Congressman (R-SC) and businessman. Known for commandeering a Confederate…
Chinese Exclusion Act
The 1882 federal law that suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers for ten years and rendered them ineligible for citizenship. A series…
Snake River Massacre (1887)
Details concerning the lynching of Chinese gold miner immigrants in Snake River/Hells Canyon, Oregon in 1887.
Charlotte Forten Grimke
A free-born Pennsylvania abolitionist, writer, storyteller, poet and teacher. Recruited to teach newly freed people in the Port Royal…
Forty Acres and a Mule
An unrealized promise included in Union General William Tecumseh Sherman’s Special Field Order No. 15 (January 16, 1865) that allotted land…
A White, Pennsylvania-born abolitionist, missionary, educator, and physician who helped cofound the Penn School (one of the first for the…
A federal agency that was created to provide aid to displaced Southerners, including newly freed people, during and after the Civil War.…
A White, Boston, Massachusetts born attorney, abolitionist, U.S. Senator, Radical Republican leader and author of the nation's first Civil…
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